Process measurements are instantaneous but analyzer responses never are. From the tap to the analyzer, there is always a time delay.

Unfortunately, this delay is often underestimated or misunderstood. Time delay is defined as the amount of time it takes for a new sample to reach the analyzer. One way to control time delay is with a regulator. Regulators control pressure, and pressure in an analytical system is closely related to time. In the case of gas systems with a controlled flow rate, the lower the pressure, the shorter the time delay. Delay may occur in any of the major parts of an analytical instrumentation (AI) system (Figure 1), including the process line, tap and probe, field station, transport line, sample conditioning system...

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